At birth, infants can process some types of mathematical information. More specifically, this ability involves distinguishing between different numbers of objects. For example, most infants can tell the difference between a card displaying three similar objects and a card displaying two of the same objects. Experiments like these have demonstrated that infants have an innate ability to compare different numbers of objects.
Geary, D. C. (1995). Reflections on evolution and culture in children’s cognition. American Psychologist, 50, 24