Parenting Counts is a product of Talaris Institute.


Testing 1,2,3: How Children Learn Through Repetitive Behavior

The age of two can be a very difficult time for parents and caregivers. Children at this age are growing more independent and sometimes they do things adults don’t want them to do. If it seems like children are intentionally disobeying or disregarding their caregivers’ wishes–it’s because they are! But they are not trying to drive you crazy on purpose.


Testing 1, 2, 3


Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. N., & Kuhl, P. K. (1999). The scientist in the crib: Minds, brains, and how children learn. New York: William Morrow.

Repacholi, B. M., & Gopnik, A. (1997). Early reasoning about desires: Evidence from 14- and 18-month-olds. Developmental Psychology, 33(1), 12-21.